IACUC Guidelines: Analgesia

University of Iowa IACUC Guidelines:

Analgesia

Guidelines: The IACUC has provided a set of guidance documents (Policies, Guidelines, and Informational Sheets) for use when planning animal procedures at the University of Iowa. An exception to a Guideline must be described and justified in the Animal Protocol and approved during the normal review process.

Purpose

The purpose of these guidelines is to describe appropriate analgesia regimens for the management of pain in animals used in teaching, research and testing at the University of Iowa.  These guidelines include minimum analgesia recommendations.  Animals should be monitored for an appropriate time period to determine if analgesia provisions are adequate.  Any animal showing evidence of pain should be provided analgesia.  If analgesia cannot be provided due to scientific reasons, the rationale should be described and approved in the Animal Protocol.

 

Pre-Emptive Use of Analgesic Agents

Pre-emptive analgesia should be provided whenever possible.  Analgesia provisions are most effective at reducing the intensity of painful stimulation when given prior to the painful event.

  • Advantages of pre-emptive use of analgesics:
    • Reduces the intensity of painful stimulation
    • Improves the animal's comfort level after surgery
    • Decreases the amount of anesthesia required to maintain a surgical plane
    • Results in a smoother recovery

Multi-Modal Use of Analgesic Agents

  • Multi-modal analgesia (giving multiple drugs with different mechanisms of action) provides the best analgesia possible
    • e.g., local analgesia + opioid + NSAID (when appropriate)
    • Classes, dosages, routes and frequency of administration are listed in the “Common Analgesic Agents” section of these guidelines

Minimum Analgesia Requirements

  • Subcutaneous wounding, implantations or procedures without incising through muscle wall:
    • NSAIDS
    • Analgesia should be provided for a minimum of 24 hours post-op
  • Incisions into retro-peritoneal or abdominal cavity or the muscle wall:
    • NSAIDS and/or Opioids
    • Analgesia should be provided for a minimum of 48 hours post-op
  • Incisions into thoracic cavity through the muscle wall:
    • Opioids
    • Analgesia should be provided for a minimum of 48 hours post-op
  • Craniotomy
    • NSAIDS and/or Opioids
    • Analgesia should be provided for a minimum of 48 hours post-op

Common Analgesic Agents

The following is a list of commonly used analgesic agents by species.  This list is not inclusive; other analgesic agents may be listed and used in an Animal Protocol.

Other accepted resources for appropriate analgesics include the following formularies:

  • Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook (Plumb)
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals (ACLAM)
  • Formulary for Laboratory Animals (Hawk)
  • Exotic Animal Formulary (Carpenter & Marion)
  • Swine in the Laboratory (Swindle)
  • Sheep and Goat Medicine (Pew)

Appropriate analgesic drugs and dosage(s) should be determined in consultation with an OAR or IACUC veterinarian.

Mouse:

   

Class

Agent

Dose/Route/Frequency

Local

Bupivacaine 0.5% solution

[See Rodent Local Analgesia Guidelines]

NSAID

Flunixin meglumine

2.5 mg/kg SC every 12-24 hours

NSAID

Meloxicam

1-2 mg/kg SC every 24 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine

0.05-2.5 mg/kg SC or IP every 6-12 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine SR-LAB (sustained release)**

0.5-2.0 mg/kg SC every 48 hours

Opioid

Butorphanol

0.2-2 mg/kg SC or IP every 2-4 hours

Opioid

Oxymorphone

0.2-0.5 mg/kg SC every 6-12 hours

**Contact OAR Veterinarians for prescription and training

 

   

Rat:

   

Class

Agent

Dose/Route/Frequency

Local

Bupivacaine 0.5% solution

[See Rodent Local Analgesia Guidelines]

NSAID

Ketoprofen

5 mg/kg SC or PO every 24 hours

NSAID

Meloxicam

1-2 mg/kg SC or PO every 24 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine

0.02-0.5 mg/kg SC, IV or IP every 6-12 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine SR-LAB (sustained release)**

1.0-1.2 mg/kg SC every 48 hours

Opioid

Butorphanol

0.2-2 mg/kg SC or IP every 2-4 hours

Opioid

Oxymorphone

0.2-0.5 mg/kg SC every 6-12 hours

**Contact OAR Veterinarians for prescription and training

 

 

Rabbit:

   

 

Class

Agent

Dose/Route/Frequency

Local

Bupivacaine 0.5% solution

Line block, consult with vet staff

NSAID

Carprofen

1-2.2 mg/kg PO every 12 hours

NSAID

Flunixin meglumine

1-2 mg/kg SC or IM every 12-24 hours

NSAID

Ketoprofen

3 mg/kg SC every 24 hours

NSAID

Meloxicam

0.2-0.6 mg/kg SC or PO every 24 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine

0.01-0.05 mg/kg SC, IM or IV every 6-12 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine SR  (sustained release)**

0.1-0.3 mg/kg SC every 48-72 hours

Opioid

Butorphanol

0.1-1 mg/kg SC, IM or IV every 4-6 hours

Opioid

Oxymorphone

0.05-0.2 mg/kg SC or IM every 8-12hours

**Contact OAR Veterinarians for prescription and training

 

Pig:

   

Class

Agent

Dose/Route/Frequency

Local

Bupivacaine 0.5% solution

Line block, consult with vet staff

NSAID

Carprofen

2-3 mg/kg IM, SC or PO every 24 hours

NSAID

Flunixin meglumine

1-4 mg/kg IM or SC every 12-24 hours

NSAID

Ketoprofen

1-3 mg/kg IM, SC or PO every 24 hours

NSAID

Meloxicam

0.4 mg/kg SC every 24 hours

NSAID

Phenylbutazone

4-8 mg/kg PO every 12 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine

0.005-0.1 mg/kg IM, SC or IV every 8-12 hours

0.005-0.01 recommended for augmenting anesthetia; 0.01-0.1 recommended for post-operative pain control

Opioid

Buprenorphine SR (sustained release)**

0.12-0.2 mg/kg SC every 48-72 hours

Opioid

Butorphanol

0.1-0.3 mg/kg IM, SC or IV every 8-12 hours

Opioid

Oxymorphone

0.15 mg/kg IM or SC every 4 hours

**Contact OAR Veterinarians for prescription and training

 

Sheep:

   

Class

Agent

Dose/Route/Frequency

Local

Bupivacaine 0.5% solution

Line block, consult with vet staff

NSAID

Carprofen

4 mg/kg SC every 24 hours

NSAID

Flunixin meglumine

1-2 mg/kg IM, IV or PO every 12-24 hours

Opioid

Ketoprofen

2-3 mg/kg IM, IV or PO every 24 hours

Opioid

Phenylbutazone

2-6 mg/kg IV or PO every 12 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine SR  (sustained release)**

0.05-0.3 mg/kg SC or IM every 48-72 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine

0.005-0.01 mg/kg IM every 4-6 hours

Opioid

Butorphanol

0.5 mg/kg SC every 2-3 hours

**Contact OAR Veterinarians for prescription and training

 

Ferret:

   

Class

Agent

Dose/Route/Frequency

Local

Bupivacaine 0.5% solution

Line block, consult with vet staff

NSAID

Carprofen

1 mg/kg PO every 12-24 hours

NSAID

Flunixin meglumine

0.3-2 mg/kg SC every 12-24 hours

NSAID

Ketoprofen

1 mg/kg PO, SC or IM every 24 hours

Opioid

Buprenorphine

0.01-0.03 mg/kg SC, IM or IV every 8-12 hours

Opioid

Butorphanol

0.05-0.5 mg/kg SC, IM or IV every 8-12 hours

Opioid

Oxymorphone

0.05-0.2 mg/kg SC, IM or IV every 8-12 hours

 

Non-pharmacologic methods of pain management

When pharmacological intervention (i.e. analgesic agents) is not possible or in addition to pharmacological intervention, these methods can be employed to decrease pain:

  • Skilled surgeon (reduce unintentional surgical trauma)
  • Acclimation of animals prior to surgery
  • Enhance environment to minimize stress (soft bedding, easy food access, soft food, warm temperature, decrease human traffic, decrease noise)
  • Fluid therapy to sustain hydration

 

Last Reviewed by Committee 12/13/17